(ISSN 0972-7272) The peer reviewed  journal

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Volume 4 Issue 2 June 2006


Expressing and Interpreting User Intention in Pervasive Service environments

Pascal Bihler§ Vasile-Marian Scuturici, Lionel Brunie

§Computer Science Department, Yale University,
51 Prospect St., New Haven, CT 06520, USA
‡Laboratoire LIRIS - UMR 5205, INSA de Lyon,
7 avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne cedex
Email: {marian.scuturici,lionel.brunie}


The introduction of pervasive computing environments enforce new ways of human-machine-interaction. The welldefined interaction interfaces will make place for other, more intuitive ways of interaction. In a pervasive service environment, the system middleware should take care of capturing the user’s expression of an action intention, solving ambiguousness in this expression, and executing the final pervasive action This article introduces the Pervasive Service Action Query Language (PsaQL), a language to formalize the description of a user intention using composed pervasive services. It presents the next steps of intention treatment in a pervasive service environment: A mathematical model is given, which helps to express the algorithms performing translation of the user intention into an executable action. To implement such algorithms, a suitable object- oriented model representing actions is introduced. In the scope of PERSE, a pervasive service environment developed by our research group, general evaluation metrics for such algorithms are identified, a prototype has been developed and first benchmark results are presented in this article.

Categories and Subject Descriptors
H.2.3 [Languages]; Query languages H.1.2 [User/Machine Systems]: H.5.1 [Multimedia Information System]
General Terms
Pervasive service environment, Human-machine interaction
Keywords: Pervasive Service Action Query Language (PsaQL), Pervasive Computing, Object- oriented model, Algorithms in pervasive computing

Using BFA with WordNet Based Model for Web Retrieval

Václav Snášel1, Pavel Moravec1, Jaroslav Pokorný2
1Department of Computer Science, FEECS, VŠB-TU Ostrava,
17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba, CZ
Czech Republic
{vaclav.snasel, pavel.moravec}
2Department of Software Engineering, Charles University,
Malostranské námìstí 25, 118 00 Prague, CZ
Czech Republic  



In the area of information retrieval, the dimension of document vectors plays an important role. We may need to find a few words or concepts, which characterize the document based on its contents, to overcome the problem of the “curse of dimensionality”, which makes indexing of high-dimensional data problematic. To do so, we earlier proposed a Wordnet and Wordnet+LSI (Latent Semantic Indexing) based model for dimension reduction. While LSI works on the whole collection, another procedure of feature extraction (and thus dimension reduction) exists, using binary factorization. The procedure is based on the search of attractors in Hopfield-like associative memory. Being applied to textual data the procedure conducted well and even more it showed sensitivity to the context in which the words were used. In this paper, we suggest that the binary factorization may benefit from the Wordnet filtration.

Categories and Subject Descriptors
H.3 [Information Storage and Retrieval]; H.3.1 [Content analysis and indexing]
General Terms
Web retrieval, Latent Semantic Indexing
Keywords: Web information retrieval, Latent semantic indexing, Semantic web, WordNet, Ontology, Vector model

A New Persistent Labelling Scheme for XML

Alban Gabillon, Majirus Fansi
Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour
IUT des Pays de l’Adour
40000 Mont-de-Marsan, France


With the growing importance of XML in data exchange, much research has been done in providing flexible query facilities to extract data from structured XML documents. Thereby, several path indexing, labelling and numbering scheme have been proposed. However, if XML data need to be updated frequently, most of these approaches will need to re-compute existing labels which is rather time consuming. The goal of the research reported in this paper is to design a persistent structural labelling scheme, namely a labelling scheme where labels encode ancestor-descendant relationships and sibling relationship between nodes but need not to be changed when the document is updated.

Categories and Subject Descriptors
H.2.3 [Data Description Languages]; D.3.2 [Language Classifications]; Extensible langauges
General Terms
Data management, XML
Keywords: Data exchange, Labeling scheme, XML Database, XML standards

Extracting Information From Coarser-grained Data in XML Documents

Youakim BADR
National Institute of Applied Sciences - Lyon
PRISMa - Production Engineering and Computer Science for Manufacturing Systems
PO Box 7, av. Jean Capelle 69621 Villeurbanne - FRANCE


XML is fast emerging as the dominant standard for representing data in the applications centric documents. While there has been a great deal of works recently proposing the extraction of relevant data of natural language texts, most of the underlying works confront with the irregular structure hidden in the text. To this end, a large spectrum of wrappers has been conceived for web pages. Unfortunately, they cannot deal with semi-structured data and cannot still take into consideration the natural language processing. In this paper, we present a specification language to write expressive and easy extraction patterns. The specification relies on regular expression fashion in order to write patterns by non expert users. In addition, we introduce the Xtractor wrapper for coarser-grained data (i.e. paragraphs). The Xtractor hinges on linguistic parsing of paragraphs and applies technical and natural language dictionaries. Then it employs the extraction patterns against the pre-processed paragraphs in order to locate relevant data. The key idea of our approach consists of translating the extraction patterns to Finite State Transducers (FST) and even using the FST to build the domain specific dictionaries.

Categories and Subject Descriptors
H.2.3 [Data Description Languages]; D.3.2 [Language Classifications]; Extensible langauges
General Terms
Data management, XML
Keywords: Data exchange, XML Database, Xtractor wrapper, Finite State Transducers

Providing Support for Interaction with Consistent Multimedia Presentations

Susan Elias

Department of Computer Science and Engineering
Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering
Chennai - 602 105. India.

K. S. Easwarakumar
Department of Computer Science and Engineering
Anna University
Chennai - 600 025. India.

Lisa Mathew
School of Science and Humanities
Vellore Institute of Technology
Vellore - 632 014. India.

Richard Chbeir
Computer Science Department
LE2I - Bourgogne University
BP 47870 21078, Dijon CEDEX France.


Multimedia presentations are generally specified in terms of spatial and temporal relations between the media objects involved. Creation of these presentations, and interactions with them during their play-out, require an effective mechanism for handling the specifications dynamically. These specifications could result in inconsistencies, which need to be checked and resolved. Moreover, consistent presentations could become inconsistent due to interactions during the playout. Our main contribution is the design of an algorithm which aids in resolving these consistency issues dynamically and efficiently. The other salient features of our approach are a new composite spatio-temporal operator and an effective relaxation policy. We have developed a prototype which helps to study the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Thus, this paper presents an interactive multimedia presentation mechanism, which maintains a consistent and complete set of constraints during authoring and play-out of the presentation.

Categories and Subject Descriptors
H.2.8 [Database applications]; Spatial databases H.5.1 [Multimedia Information System]
General Terms
Multimedia, Multimedia presentation

Keywords: Spatio-temporal relations, Distributed multimedia presentations, Consistency checking, Completeness checking

Ad Hoc Location Service for Mobile Agents

Ibrahim Lokpo, Tra Goore Bi
Institut National Polytechnique Félix Houphouet-Boigny
BP 1093 Yamoussoukro, Côte d’Ivoire, France
Email: ,    

Christophe Cubat dit Cros, Gérard Padiou
Institut de Recherche en Informatique de Toulouse
ENSEEIHT, BP 7122, 2 rue Charles Camichel
F-31071 Toulouse cedex 7, France
Email: , 


In this paper, we study two implementations of a mobile agent location service in the context of an underlying ad hoc network. More precisely, this service aims at solving the problem of routing an agent toward a target agent in order to cooperate on a common host. Both the migration number and the tracking time must be minimized by such a service. We compare two implementations based on rumor propagation using either a piggybacking approach or a gossipy agent-based approach. The comparison of the two solutions is based upon simulation results. Performance analysis demonstrates that the piggybacking approach minimizes the response time and the gossipy agent-based approach minimizes the network overhead.

Categories and Subject Descriptors
D.4.4 [Communication Management]; C.2.3 [Network Operations]
General Terms
Ad hoc networks, Mobile agents
Keywords: Message routing, Mobile agents, Gossipy agent-based approach, Piggybacking approach, Ad hoc location service

A Method for Incorporating User Modelling

Paul de Vrieze, Patrick van Bommel,
Theo van der Weide

Computing and Information Science, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Email: {pauldv, pvb,tvdw}


WIn this paper a method is presented for adding user modelling to (existing) software systems. The method consists of seven steps that lead from initial analysis to the definition and evaluation of the elements needed for the adaptive behaviour. Along with the method, the central concepts of adaptation elements and adaptation graphs are introduced. An adaptation element can be used to determine the impact of personalisations, while adaptation
graphs describe the adaptation in a system as a whole.

Categories and Subject Descriptors
C.4.[Performance of Systems]; Modeling Techniques I.6.5 [Model Development]: Modeling methodologies H.5.4 [Hypertext/Hypermedia]
General Terms
User modeling, Software systems
Keywords: Adaptation graphs, Software systems, User modeling techniques, Adaptive hyper media

Energy Efficient Adaptive Message Transmission Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

Guilin Li1 Jianzhong Li1,2 Longjiang Guo1,2
1School of Computer Science and Technology
Harbin Institute of Technology, China
2School of Computer Science and Technology
Heilongjiang University, China
{liguilin, lijzh, guolongjiang}


An energy efficient adaptive message transmission algorithm is proposed to save the energy consumption of the wireless sensor networks when answering the event-based ad hoc query. Compared with other algorithms based on either active or inactive message transmission mode, our adaptive algorithm emphasizes that every event lasts for a period of time, in which the ratio between the query frequency and the data production frequency changes from time to time, so using only one kind of message transmission mode is not enough to save energy. Our algorithm can adaptively change the message transmission mode for the sensor nodes according to this ratio. Experimental results showed that our adaptive algorithm could save more energy than other algorithms.

Categories and Subject Descriptors
C.2.1 [Network Architecture and Design]: Wireless Communication D.4.4 [Communication Management]: H.2.4 [Systems]; Query processing
General Terms
Sensor Networks, Wireless networks, Data Management
Keywords: adaptive message transmission; energy efficiency; event-based ad hoc query processing; data management for wireless sensor networks


From Words to Concepts in Text Mining

Saleh Al- Zahrani
Information Systems Department
Faculty of Computer & Information Science
Imam Mohammad Bin Saud University
Saudi Arabia


In the text mining process the interface between the natural language text and content reflecting terms is essential for the successful indexing process. The traditional interfaces such as thesauri and lexicons have limitations for web content processing. The recent lexical nets have promises, but their efficiency needs to be tested. The current work measures the use of word relations specified by lexical nets in a large test bed. The results correlate with similar recent past studies as not all specified word relations in the lexical nets are semantically rich in expressing the conceptual relations between given words. The results call for applying more heuristic approaches for text mining.

Categories and Subject Descriptors
H.3.1 [Content Analysis and Indexing]: Indexing methods H.3.3 [Information Search and Retrieval]: Retrieval Models
General Terms
Text Mining, Web Content Processing, Information Retrieval
Keywords: Text Mining, Text processing, Word Relation, Concept indexing


Trends in Data Management: ‘High Availability’

Douglas B. Bock*, Bijoy Bordoloi
Department of Computer Management and Information Systems
Campus Box 1106
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville
Edwardsville, IL 62026-1106,



In today’s highly competitive business environment, for most companies it is imperative that their business data is always accessible from their data servers in a seamlessly fault tolerant manner. DBMSs, which constitute the core of most business information systems, are attempting to implement this requirement through a feature often referred to in the data management literature as ‘high availability’. Against the backdrop of a leading DBMS, Microsoft SQL Server 2005, we define the concept of high availability and examine the various approaches to high availability, namely, mirroring, clustering, replication, and log shipping, which should be of interest to database administrators and the students of database management system technology.

Categories and Subject Descriptors
H.2[Database Management]; Modeling Techniques H.2.4 [Systems]: Relational Databases
General Terms
Database management system, SQL server, Business Information System
Keywords: Database administration, SQL, Data mirroring, Data Clustering, Data replication

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